True Positives - False Positives - False Negatives

Anchor Text | Preceeding Context | Following Context |
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JPEG | ... instance, it was both possible and encouraged to store a common format like | along with editable binary format, but in practice few developers followed ... |

A* search algorithm | ... red, including greedy algorithms, randomized search, genetic algorithms and | |

Grover's algorithm | There are also search methods designed for quantum computers, like | , that are theoretically faster than linear or brute-force search even wit ... |

Karmarkar Linear Programming Algorithm | ... an important component in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In 1984, the | was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Also in 1984, a divesti ... |

Top-down parsing | ... er the known fundamental structures are compatible with the hypothesis. See | and Bottom-up parsing |

Boyer–Moore | ... ithms, that search for patterns within strings. Two famous examples are the | and Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithms, and several algorithms based on the suf ... |

Euclidean algorithm | ... en, pp. 29–31 algorithm for calculating the Jacobi symbol, analogous to the | for finding the GCD of two numbers. (This should not be surprising in ligh ... |

Ridders' method | ... he secant method, but requires the two starting points to bracket the root. | is a variant on the false-position method that also evaluates the function ... |

Durand–Kerner | The simple | and the slightly more complicated Aberth method simultaneously finds all t ... |

PageRank | ... gle's search-results pages is based, in part, on a priority rank called a " | ". Google Search provides many options for customized search, using Boolea ... |

schedulability | ... jitter in the interrupt latency, which can drastically affect the real-time | of the system. The Intel APIC Architecture is well known for producing a h ... |

ROAM | The Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes ( | ) algorithm computes a dynamically changing triangulation of a terrain. It ... |

Bottom-up parsing | ... tal structures are compatible with the hypothesis. See Top-down parsing and | |

Vorbis | ... ectronics, and AT&T. In addition, there is also the open source file format | that has been available free of charge and without any known patent restri ... |

Vorbis | Newer audio compression formats such as AAC, WMA Pro and | are generally void of a number of these limitations |

LL parser | ... the order in which the pieces of code will be executed. See for an example | s and LR parsers |

Barrett reduction | - 2^9 - 2^8 - 2^7 - 2^6 - 2^4 - 1. Compared to | there can be an order of magnitude speedup. The speedup here is a practica ... |

LR parser | ... hich the pieces of code will be executed. See for an example LL parsers and | s |

Aberth method | The simple Durand–Kerner and the slightly more complicated | simultaneously finds all the roots using only simple complex number arithm ... |

Grover's algorithm | ... lassical computers. If a suitably sized quantum computer capable of running | reliably becomes available, it would reduce a 128-bit key down to 64-bit s ... |

binary exponentiation | ... n, can be computed quickly using techniques of fast exponentiation such as | , which takes only O(log n) field operations. No fast way of computing the ... |

Banker's algorithm | One known algorithm that is used for deadlock avoidance is the | , which requires resource usage limit to be known in advance. However, for ... |

Computus | ... cess that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. (See also | and Reform of the date of Easter.) In particular, the Council did not decr ... |

Brent's method | is a combination of the bisection method, the secant method and inverse qu ... | |

Aho–Corasick string matching algorithm | ... implementation. fgrep searches for any of a list of fixed strings using the | . These variants of grep persist in most modern grep implementations as co ... |

Move to front | # | (MTF): again, this transform does not alter the size of the processed bloc ... |

JPEG | ... f the Kronecker product. It appears in lossy compression algorithms such as | |

AAC | Newer audio compression formats such as | , WMA Pro and Vorbis are generally void of a number of these limitations |

UPC | ... pallet using RFID tags, and at package level with Universal Product Code ( | ) or EAN from unique barcodes |

DEFLATE | ... s without having to continuously supply new tables, as would be required in | . Run-length encoding in the previous step is designed to take care of cod ... |

AGM method | This can be used for algorithmic purposes as in the | |

decompression algorithms | ... -gassing). A consequence of the higher loading in some tissues is that many | require deeper decompression stops than a similar decompression dive using ... |

LZMA | ... Deflate (.zip and .gz) compression algorithms, but is considerably slower. | is generally more space-efficient than bzip2 at the expense of slower comp ... |

LL parser | ... ley parser is an example of such an algorithm, while the widely used LR and | s are simpler algorithms that deal only with more restrictive subsets of c ... |

Entropy encoding | #redirect | |

Huffman coding | ... similar frequencies together, inserting length coding zeros, and then using | on what is left |

quantized | # The amplitudes of the frequency components are | . Human vision is much more sensitive to small variations in color or brig ... |

UPC | ... time" auction format to include "Buy It Now" standard shopping; shopping by | , ISBN, or other kind of SKU (via Half.com); online classified advertiseme ... |

AAC | Many other lossy and lossless audio codecs exist. Among these, mp3PRO, | , and MP2 are all members of the same technological family as MP3 and depe ... |

Prim's algorithm | ... stra's algorithm, Kruskal's algorithm, the nearest neighbour algorithm, and | |

LR parser | ... ser generators like yacc use LALR(1) parse tables to construct a restricted | with a fixed one-token lookahead |

Web crawler | ... pages automatically, without prior knowledge of what it might find, is the | or search-engine spider. These software agents are dependent on the semant ... |

Delta encoding | # | (Δ): Huffman code bit-lengths are required to reconstruct each of the used ... |

International Standard Book Number | The | s work with a check digit, which exploits the fact that 11 is a prime |

A* search algorithm | The | finds the shortest path between two vertices or nodes of a weighted graph, ... |

prime factorization | ... be identical except for the order of the factors. So, albeit there are many | algorithms to do this in practice for larger numbers, they all have to yie ... |

indexes | The exact percentage of the total of web pages that Google | are not known, as it is very difficult to accurately calculate. Google not ... |

Las Vegas algorithm | ... arlo algorithms with polynomial bounded running time. This is compared to a | which is a randomized algorithm which either outputs the correct answer, o ... |

Burrows–Wheeler transform | bzip2 compresses data in blocks of size between 100 and 900 kB and uses the | to convert frequently-recurring character sequences into strings of identi ... |

Edmonds–Karp algorithm | ... was published in 1954. The name "Ford–Fulkerson" is often also used for the | , which is a specialization of Ford–Fulkerson |

Edmonds–Karp algorithm | ... teed termination and a runtime independent of the maximum flow value is the | , which runs in O(VE^2) time |

International Standard Book Number | The CD case for the album was rather unique as there was an | on the back cover |

Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm | ... ch for patterns within strings. Two famous examples are the Boyer–Moore and | s, and several algorithms based on the suffix tree data structure |

Deflate | bzip2 compresses most files more effectively than the older LZW (.Z) and | (.zip and .gz) compression algorithms, but is considerably slower. LZMA is ... |

Grover's algorithm | ... two best known quantum computing attacks are based on Shor's algorithm and | . Of the two, Shor's offers the greater risk to current security systems |

Euclidean algorithm | ... subring of the ring of all quaternions for which there is an analog of the | |

UPC | RFID tags are often a complement, but not a substitute, for | or EAN barcodes. They may not ever completely replace barcodes, due in par ... |

SMA* | ... t is given highest priority. If memory limitations make A* impractical, the | algorithm can be used instead, with a double-ended priority queue to allow ... |

Shor's algorithm | The two best known quantum computing attacks are based on | and Grover's algorithm. Of the two, Shor's offers the greater risk to curr ... |

Monte Carlo algorithm | A | is a randomized algorithm which is likely to be correct. Problems in the c ... |

Quicksort | The | sorting algorithm, relating a list to its sorted version |

Huffman coding | ... o strings of identical letters. It then applies move-to-front transform and | . bzip2's ancestor bzip used arithmetic coding instead of Huffman. The cha ... |

PageRank | ... o a measure of importance for a given web page, Brin and Page developed the | algorithm, and realized that it could be used to build a search engine far ... |

JPEG | Expanding the 8x8 | blocks into the third dimension that is into 8x8x8 cubes and modifying the ... |

Vorbis | ... exist both free and/or proprietary alternatives, with free formats such as | , FLAC, and others. Microsoft's usage of its own proprietary Windows Media ... |

lossless | ... wer level of compression; they may be eliminated by saving an image using a | file format, though for photographic images this will usually result in a ... |

top-down | In computer science, an LL parser is a | parser for a subset of the context-free grammars. It parses the input from ... |

Dijkstra's algorithm | - y_j + y_i are nonnegative and A* essentially runs | on these reduced costs |

Occam's razor | ... rvation law!s, Ohm's law, and others. Laws of other fields of study include | as a principle of philosophy and Say's law in economics. Examples of obser ... |

PageRank | ... ogle's rise to success was in large part due to a patented algorithm called | that helps rank web pages that match a given search string. When Google wa ... |

SHA-2 | ... d in the open academic community, in contrast to the NSA-designed SHA-1 and | algorithms. On the other hand, RIPEMD-160 appears to be used somewhat less ... |

Schönhage–Strassen algorithm | ... e Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, Lipschitz continuity, the Petri net, the | , Faltings' theorem and the Toeplitz matrix are all named after University ... |

JPEG | ... to capture video stills from video camera, VCR or broadcast television as a | , and included a video tuner that allowed one to schedule a VCR in a manne ... |

SHA-1 | ... n principles used in MD4, and is similar in performance to the more popular | |

XOR swap algorithm | #redirect | |

Broyden's method | ... imately 1.6). A generalization of the secant method in higher dimensions is | |

Newton's method | ... locating and separating roots. This plus interval arithmetic combined with | yields robust and fast algorithms |

Run-length encoding | # | (RLE): any sequence of 4 to 255 consecutive duplicate symbols is replaced ... |

LZW | bzip2 compresses most files more effectively than the older | (.Z) and Deflate (.zip and .gz) compression algorithms, but is considerabl ... |

JPEG | ... measured in the sRGB output from the camera, it is only applicable to sRGB | —and not to output files in raw image format. It is not applicable when mu ... |

Advanced Audio Coding | ... d or have effects applied. Audio data compression techniques — such as MP3, | , Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC — are commonly employed to reduce the file size. Dig ... |

DEFLATE | ... map uses between 32 and 272 bits of storage (4–34 bytes). For contrast, the | algorithm would show the absence of a symbol by encoding the symbol as hav ... |

SHA-1 | ... as designed in the open academic community, in contrast to the NSA-designed | and SHA-2 algorithms. On the other hand, RIPEMD-160 appears to be used som ... |

Linear hashing | is a hash table algorithm that permits incremental hash table expansion. I ... | |

LALR(1) | ... limited lookahead. By contrast, traditional parser generators like yacc use | parse tables to construct a restricted LR parser with a fixed one-token lo ... |

maximin | ... rinciple for evaluating the choices before them. Borrowed from game theory, | stands for maximizing the minimum, i.e. making the choice that produces th ... |

local search | An important subclass are the | methods, that view the elements of the search space as the vertices of a g ... |

Ostrich algorithm | ... ssumed that a deadlock will never occur. This is also an application of the | . This approach was initially used by MINIX and UNIX |

Householder's method | ... onal problems. Newton-like methods with higher order of convergence are the | s. The first one after Newton's method is Halley's method with cubic order ... |

Earley parser | ... string, determine whether and how it can be generated from the grammar. An | is an example of such an algorithm, while the widely used LR and LL parser ... |

Grover's algorithm | ... tum computing attacks. They are widely conjectured to be most vulnerable to | . Bennett, Bernstein, Brassard, and Vazirani proved in 1996 that a brute-f ... |

Dijkstra's algorithm | ... priority queue can be used to extract minimum efficiently when implementing | |

Dijkstra's algorithm | ... ven graph — such as subgraphs, paths, circuits, and so on. Examples include | , Kruskal's algorithm, the nearest neighbour algorithm, and Prim's algorit ... |

Kruskal's algorithm | ... bgraphs, paths, circuits, and so on. Examples include Dijkstra's algorithm, | , the nearest neighbour algorithm, and Prim's algorithm |

Ogg Vorbis | ... ed. Audio data compression techniques — such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, | , or FLAC — are commonly employed to reduce the file size. Digital audio c ... |

Halley's method | ... gence are the Householder's methods. The first one after Newton's method is | with cubic order of convergence |

Scheduling (computing) | See also: | , queueing theor |

Forensic science | ... al Engineering, Chemo-informatics, Electrochemistry, Environmental science, | , Geochemistry, Green chemistry, History of chemistry, Materials science, ... |

Newton's method | assumes the function f to have a continuous derivative. Newton's method ma ... | |

Shor's algorithm | Elliptic curve cryptography is vulnerable to a modified | for solving the discrete logarithm problem on elliptic curves |

CYK algorithm | ... r a given string is in the language represented by that grammar or not (the | ) |

lossy | The compression method is usually | , meaning that some original image information is lost and cannot be resto ... |

Huffman coding | # | : this process replaces fixed length symbols in the range 0–258 with varia ... |

date of Easter | ... fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the | . It can occur as early as February 4 or as late as March 10 |

lossless | ... cannot be restored, possibly affecting image quality. There is an optional | mode defined in the JPEG standard; however, this mode is not widely suppor ... |

Pollard's rho | ... stest known algorithms that allow to solve the ECDLP (baby-step giant-step, | , etc.), need O(\sqrt{n}) steps, it follows that the size of the underlyin ... |

Parsing | is the process of analyzing an input sequence (such as that read from a fi ... | |

Euclidean shortest path | For shortest path problems in computational geometry, see | |

Lenstra elliptic curve factorization | ... er factorization algorithms that have applications in cryptography, such as | |

Laguerre's method | ... y and fast convergence even in the presence of multiple or clustered roots. | , as well as Halley's method, use second order derivatives and complex ari ... |

JPEG | ... this point a dynamic filter may be applied on the return path. For example, | files could be blocked based on fleshtone matches, or language filters cou ... |

ray-tracing | ... ges this will usually result in a larger file size. The images created with | programs have noticeable blocky shapes on the terrain. Certain low-intensi ... |

Edmonds–Karp | ... first search in G_f(V,E_f) . If you use the former, the algorithm is called | |

Schönhage–Strassen algorithm | ... ding portions of the output. Other fast convolution algorithms, such as the | , use fast Fourier transforms in other rings |

LR parser | ... d constructs a Leftmost derivation of the sentence (hence LL, compared with | ). The class of grammars which are parsable in this way is known as the LL ... |

JPEG | WinZip 12.0 (2008) added support of creating ZIP archives with lossless | and LZMA compression methods; .ISO, .IMG, 7-Zip archive extractions. Added ... |

Shor's algorithm | ... n-bit integer. However, the best known quantum algorithm for this problem, | , does run in polynomial time. Unfortunately, this fact doesn't say much a ... |

Halley's method | Laguerre's method, as well as | , use second order derivatives and complex arithmetics, including the comp ... |

PageRank | ... his personal wealth is estimated to be $18.7 billion. He is the inventor of | , which became the foundation of Google's search ranking algorithm |

Anchor Text | Preceeding Context | Following Context |
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ID3 | ... er along with the specification of the header. Most MP3 files today contain | metadata, which precedes or follows the MP3 frames; as noted in the diagra ... |

quantized | ... energy spectrum of a system with such discrete energy levels is said to be | |

Descent | ... ey first loaded, by smoothly fading out the text screen to black. (The game | , from 1995, is an example. |

symmetric | Although the matrix Λ is | , it appears daunting and unwieldy. To make it easier to remember and use, ... |

protocol | The early Jabber | , as developed in 1999 and 2000, formed the basis for XMPP as published in ... |

JTA | ... s town, but a few go to Hastings and Jacksonville, where one can connect to | for additional service across Jacksonville |

quantized | ... quantum gravity, string theory, and black hole thermodynamics all predict a | spacetime with agreement on the order of magnitude. Loop quantum gravity m ... |

index | ... e Cretaceous period Chalk Formation of England and France, serve as zone or | fossils. Because they evolved rapidly, they aid geologists in dating the s ... |

priority | Multiple levels of 'user/object/process | ' and/or multiprocessing usually complicate the control of reentrant code. ... |

brute force | ... are quite easy to crack. Many of the classical ciphers can be cracked using | or by analyzing only ciphertext with the exception of the one-time pad |

JPEG File Interchange Format | ... evolved to address these issues. The first of these, released in 1992, was | (or JFIF), followed in recent years by Exchangeable image file format (Exi ... |

normalized | ... iews, with a weighted average score of 8/10. At Metacritic, which assigns a | 0–100 rating to reviews from mainstream critics, calculated an average sco ... |

schema | A DTD is an example of a | or grammar. Since the initial publication of XML 1.0, there has been subst ... |

table | Database normalization is the process of organizing the fields and | s of a relational database to minimize redundancy and dependency |

Neural network | ... l terminology more relevant to Internet search (i.e., blogging, ecommerce). | algorithms searched the expanded WordNet for related terms to disambiguate ... |

Anchor Text | Preceeding Context | Following Context |
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search and indexing | ... er browsers and to other user agents that may try to parse the document for | purposes for example |

MTF | ... bit run between one (1) and six (6) bits in length. The selection is into a | list of the tables. Using this feature results in a maximum expansion of a ... |

symmetric algorithm | ... ces; see EFF DES cracker. 56 bits is now considered insufficient length for | keys, and may have been for some time. More technically and financially ca ... |

regression | ... erms of semantics, pattern recognition, and operational techniques, such as | |

Burrows–Wheeler algorithm | bzip2 is a free and open source implementation of the | . It is developed and maintained by Julian Seward. Seward made the first p ... |

Neural networks | Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. | and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gam ... |

Huffman tables | # Multiple | : several identically-sized Huffman tables can be used with a block if the ... |

entropy-coded | ... length, but not the two bytes for the marker.) Some markers are followed by | data; the length of such a marker does not include the entropy-coded data. ... |

Skipjack | The NSA's | algorithm used in its Fortezza program employs 80 bit keys |

LR | ... An Earley parser is an example of such an algorithm, while the widely used | and LL parsers are simpler algorithms that deal only with more restrictive ... |

Walsh spectrum | When all inputs are false, the output is false. | : (1,-1,-1,1 |

LR(k)-parseable | ... may not be reliably tested by a deterministic pushdown automaton and is not | . When reading a palindrome from left-to-right, it is, in essence, impossi ... |

first-in, first out | ... oid starvation, a semaphore has an associated queue of processes (usually a | ). If a process performs a P operation on a semaphore that has the value z ... |

Baconian | ... tesian mathematics, geometry and theoretical deduction on the one hand, and | experimental observation and induction on the other hand, together could l ... |

variation | ... of the game to store information; the tree structure makes the addition of | s simple. It is also text-based instead of binary for the sake of portabil ... |

pattern recognition | ... tends to apply to processes such as memory, association, concept formation, | , language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imag ... |

generalized LR parsing | ... parsing extends LL parsing to support a larger range of grammars; in turn, | extends LR parsing to support arbitrary context-free grammars. On LL gramm ... |